Mohamed Sheikh SBAI: symbol of the resistance to all the drifts

Mohamed Sheikh SBAI joined his Creator on February 13, 2005


See also: Mohamed Cheikh: last lion of the desert


It came time to share with you this site_blog, in tribute to my father, Mohamed Sheikh SBAI, disappeared 10 years ago…

There will be raised, with emotion but also with lucidity, the story of this man, Mohamed V and Ben Barka companion and who fought the excesses of Hassan II. The complexity, not to say the wealth of the character is thus posed!

Throughout his history, we will visit the Morocco and the Sahara History, without pretention of course, but without compromission as well.

Hope that this testimony illuminates areas maintained in shadow, by ignorance, or more serious in order to preserve privileges preventing the Maghreb to evolve.

I assume the part of subjectivity inherent to any evidence of characters I have known (in this case, my father), but I claim a permanent requirement of historical objectivity.

I am aware that I will make two kinds of frustrated: those for which historical and political debate must be through a narrow prism of a national cause, and those for whom any discussion must be oriented towards a systematic criticism of system(s).

But thre all others, so many, curious to the truth and wishing that our countries (those of the Maghreb in this case) go ahead and build their future together without renouncing their past. It is those that I address, finally!

Those expecting the sensational, or the superficial, forgive me for adopting historical, geographical and human perspective, instead. I beleive such approch more soothed and necessarily less nationalistic, in the narrow sense of the term, of course. In addition, this perspective may generate hopes for all the Maghreb countries blocked by a conflict that has lasted more than 40 years, preventing their peoples and their youth to build together… To tackle the real challenges: education, the development of harmonious and respectful of the environment, justice and the fight against extremism, and their causes, in the first place: illiteracy, the bad distribution of wealth and the bad governance in general. Ah if the causes, say national of these countries converge on it, the Maghreb would have made a big step towards promising, development and regional integration from any point of view. The new and future generations deserve…

The future is built with its neighbours and not against them. This is valid on both sides of each border… Europe had undertaken it, more than 50 years ago, the Maghreb when? A meditation by the time running!

This site is constructed through blogs (or chapters), ostensibly independent, but bound in the spirit, in order to allow the reader to visit aspect that may interest her/him. I have slipped stories and reflections, captured or ripened over time, of course. Another look at the desert is exposed, with a hymn to the nomadic lifestyle with emphasis on the great forgotten of conflicts tearing the region for decades: the environment!

The history of the Sahara, chapter sensitive if it is, will be more devoted to the history of mankind that countries, displeasing to those who want to bring it to a binary and reduced vision.

Since I’m more interesting to the environment and nature, common heritage, that to which it may belong, I opted for a depoliticized look. Broad debate! Policy me caught up, however, in some thoughts on the recent elections in Morocco for example as well as the problems of bad governance, but through emblematic facts (the struggle of Dr. Labbas SBAI or M’hamid: construction of bad governance). Good read

These articles, some barely begun, are being feed in the same spirit and with the same requirement: the truth

Mohamed Ali, son of Mohamed Sheikh SBAI


Mohamed Sheikh: last lion of the desert

The desert: another look

The battle of Dr, Labbas SBAI for responsible tourism and sustainable development

M’hamid ElGhozlane: Model of bad governance

Reflections of New York: August-September 2015

Travel tales

Poetry of the desert

The history of the Sahara

Chapter 1: Resistance to all drifts

Mohamed Cheick SBAI was one of first to organize resistance against the french occupation in the South, and to coordinate with the network of national resistance. His friends of resistance called Sheikh El Arab, Fqih Basri, Said Bounailat, and Ben Barka of course, among other

He was also at the head of the Sahrawi delegation which welcomed Mohamed V during his famous visit to me hamid ElGhozlane, February 25, 1958


المقاوم محمد الشيخ السباعي يقابل جلالة الملك محمد الخامس

أثناء زيارته التاريخية للمحاميد الغزلان 25 فبراير1958


The great resistant Mohamed Sheikh SBAI with Mohammed V in M’hamid, 25th February 1958, presenting him the grievances of the Saharan populations


The famous speech of Mohamed V in M’hamid El Ghozlane, February 25th, 1958


This discours represents basic argument of Morocco on the Sahara issue

1962: The clash with Hassan II.

Mohamed Sheikh SBAI resolutely committed with Mehdi BEN BARKA,  symbolizing, since 1959, the hope for the Moroccan people. This hope was assassinated on October 29, 1965 in Paris. This is the final break!

The newspaper “AL-Tahrir May 30, 1962


إن الانتصار سيكون ولا بد حليف الشعب من أقصى الوطن إلى أدناه، مهما تفنن أعداؤه في الكذب والشعودة والديماغوجية
و إن أبناء الصحراء كبيرهم وصغيرهم لمستعدون للكفاح بجانب جميع طبقات الشعب المغربي في سبيل الديمقراطية والعدالة والمساواة وضد الرجعية والتخلف

من خطاب السيد بن الشيخ من المحاميد الغزلان، في مؤتمر الاتحاد الوطني للقوات الشعبية، مايو 1962

“The victory will be inevitable and the ally of the people throughout the country, despite the prowess of his enemies in the lie, the comedy and demagoguery. ”
The sons of the Sahara, all, are ready for the fight alongside all social strata of the Moroccan people for democracy, justice and equality and against reactionaries and underdevelopment”

Speech of grand resistant and member of the UNFP, Mohamed Sheikh SBAI, said Ben Cheikh, published in the journal Al-Tahrir May 30, 1962

In 1962, he participated in the 2nd Congress of the UNFP, Casablanca, devoting the final break between BEN BARKA and HASSAN II and opening one of the darkest chapters of the reign of Hassan II in the years of lead from 1962 to 1972, offering the Morocco to General Oufkir. Mohamed Sheikh Sam will be stopped several times during its dark years, touching the death penalty on two occasions: in October, 1963, during the war of the sands between the Algeria and the Morocco and in 1969 in a national purge affecting the last faithful of Mehdi BEN BARKA in 1965 eliminated. In different interviews, Commissioners him out of their drawer his speech at the 2nd Congress of the UNFP, ahead of BEN BARKA and his friends. A BEN BARKA, congratulating comrade Mohamed Cheikh, said Ben Cheikh, the revolutionary words, which will be published in the Tahrir journal, May 30, 1962.

1965-1975: purge of the friends of BEN BARKA.

Mohamed Cheikh was arrested, in 1970 in M’hamid, for the third time on Oufkir order, with a simple slogan: don’t talk to me about more of this “camel from me hamid”. Read: wind it up! The previous two were in October, 1963, during the war of sands and in 1965, following the purges has known the Morocco after the removal of Mehdi Ben Barka. 

Colonel H’da, Governor of Ouarzazate transmitted the order, without appeal, to the cynic caïd EL Belghaiti in Tagounite… The Mokhazni, weeping, could not have unsheathed and cowardly lion of the desert, in full Hamada hoping he dies of thirst. Its resistance, outside the norm, his knowledge of the desert and especially his faith allowed him to join me hamid in a few hours… The hunted by Hassan II Mohamed V Companion. What symbol! 

Sensing the danger he instructed me to inform its few friends in Zagora and Rabat ensure on his family and relatives, because blood hand of Oufkir could crack down at any time. 

Kid, I made this unforgettable trip, CTM, where I reciting at every turn the speech I had to decline to Zagora to his friend Naciri and especially a cousin of the King, in Rabat. Their reactions say a lot about these years of lead suffered the Kingdom:

“Oh, my son, I can do nothing to save your father, that God guide on the right path: Oufkir is the master of Rabat, the Colonel H’da is master uncontested of Ouarzazate and the Super-caid Kifani does what he wants in Zagora…” The challenge of your father to power is a pure suicide… They have even eliminated Ben Barka, despite international protection… “.” The words of very fine Naciri Abdeslam, said Salamou Ali, summarized quite well the years of lead, or years Oufkir, who fell on the Morocco more than a decade during, from 1962 to 1972, year of the miraculous failure of the attempted coup of Oufkir against Hassan II. It was August 16, 1972. Rabat, received in 1972, by Moulay Hachem, Director of the Bureau of investigation and Initiatives in the Palace, to receive the grievances of the population, not me not held a more reassuring words: “called your father to make low-profile, at the moment, it is Oufkir which decides everything in the Kingdom, and it has in focus. If he decides one day to crush him against a wall, one can nothing we here! Send him my warmest greetings.

Dlimi continued repression in a more violent way until he is caught by the fate of Oufkir, with a humiliating at the Marrakech palais torture until he is executed in 1983. 

Morality: you are payed with what you did to others.

Beginning of the reign of Mohamed VI: hope and reconciliation…

The old lion has refused to submit a dossier to the Fairness and Reconciliation Instance (FRI), an initiative also commendable that hollow, squaring the lead’s years, to good account. Mohamed Cheikh felt that his fight responds to an ethic and a principle: to serve and not be served! 


Receiving Mohamed VI in Zagora, October 2001, he whispered to the ear:

“You are welcome in the land that has been trampled by your ancestors… and don’t forget to take the hand of the poor!

  ‘مرحبا بجلالتكم في الأرض التي وطوا فيها أسلافكم… ‘. ولاتنسوا أن تاخذو ا بيد الظعيف.

He declined any help or privilege to the emissaries of the King who came to inquire from him after the Royal visit… A symbol!

This is for some highlights of the history of Mohamed Sheikh SBAI

Maati Monjib: a Moroccan Sakharov

Maati Monjib: a Moroccan Sakharov!

The historian and activist of the Human Rights, Maati Monjib, is under hunger strike since 7th October, after the refusal of the authorities to allow him leaving the country on two occasions: for Barcelona in September and for the Norway in October. The Moroccan academician is accustomed, indeed, to participate in international forums, for years. As national Chairman of the NGO Freedom Now and his initiatives to encourage the Kingdom investigative journalism, make him a priority target of the authorities and especially of the cabinet of the shadow that decides to silence any critical voice in Morocco. We are witnessing the same scenario already used to neutralize other emblematic cases, as Ali Anouzla following his courageous coverage in, July – August 2013, of the grace Royal, and less shameful, of the Spanish paedophile, Daniel Galvin, author of rape and abuse on 11 Moroccan children aged 2 to 15 years old (read: The other most recent case is that of satirical journalist Ali Lmrabet prevented to have his certificate residence in his hometown, Tétouan.  The authorities fearing him resume service, after ten years of prohibition on practising journalism in Morocco (2005-2015), have argued that he did not reside in Tetouan. Quite simply. After almost 2 months of hunger strike front of the Human Rights Council in Geneva, June-July 2015, and following an international mobilization, Ali Lmrabet was finally allowed to withdraw his passport at the Consulate in Barcelona. Regarding what he may resume his activity in Morocco, there are betting that other obstacles, administrative procedures and vicious methods will arise on his path. If for these courageous feathers, to inform their fellow citizens and the world did not have any price, for shadow councelors, with a long arm, all means are good to stop them. This is the equation currently posed in Morocco where the case of Maati Monjb represents the climax. Here there is simply to prevent an academician, recognized and appreciated inside and outside the Morocco to exercise his scientific activities in international forums. This method reminds us that used in the 1970s by the former Soviet Union to prevent Academician Andrei Sakharov to participate, as a physicist, in scientific forums organized by his Western peers. These methods have not prevented Andrei Sakharov to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975, nor the USSR to collapse 16 years later. To meditate!

The argument put forward by the authorities speaks about financial irregularities in the management of the Ibn Rochd centre managed by the academician, through a SA and therefore subject to the administrative audit of the State, according to the mandate of the Prosecutor. The official press has jumped at the opportunity and swung,  in concert: dilapidated millions, family-run, non-compliance of employees, questionable aid from Foreign Countries with all that it entails as suspicion on the security of the State, etc… Please hold your nose if one reads disputes briefs declined by some official editorials in the lynching of the Academician. This reminds us that there still a road for Morocco to respect the freedom of expression. This is Dreyfus without francs “J’accuse”, at least in the Moroccan press. Fortunately, his support Committee and intensive national and international mobilzation lead finally to raise the head because, ultimately, his fight is ours, all without exception. Moroccans have need, and are proud, of their academics that shine, activists of Human Rights and journalists who remind the State its obligations to respect the right of expression and the right to inform, with one requirement: the Truth.

Note that six politicians, foreground, have condemned this process and called for the free movement of the Academician: Abderrahmane Youssoufi, companion of Mehdi Ben Barka and first Prime Minister of the alternation under Hassan II, Mhammed Boucetta, former Secretary-General of the party of Istiqlal, PJD leader, former Foreign Minister, Saadedine El Othmani, Ismail Alaoui, Honour President of the PPS, Ben Said Ait Idder, former resistant and Nabila Mounib, General Secretary of the PSU. Welcome their initiative.

Under international pressure and a national mobilization, relentlessly, the authorities have announced, this Thursday, October 29, via a decision of justice, the suspension of the prohibition to leave the territory for Maati Monjib. It is a first victory, but vigilance must be as academician seeks the abandonment of this prohibition and stopping harassment he experienced, he and his family since several months. Indeed, since his involvement in the NGOs Freedom Now, in April 2014. He announced, in conjunction with his doctors, the suspension of his hunger strike, but he is ready to resume until his rights, movement and expression, are fully recognized and respected. To follow

Reflections of New York: August-September 2015

New York: August-September 2015

August 2015, at the corner of Lexington Avenue and 41st Street, just steps from the magnificent Grand Central and Rockefeller Center.

Weather sunny and warm, in the Borough of Manhattan. Despite the summer period, the dynamism of the city of New York knows no respite. At 5:00 in the morning, New York is already standing, to tell the truth it never sleeps! After a visit yesterday, at the World Trade Center and its major 9/11 memorial. Place in Scripture.

The cataclysm of the attacks of 11 September marked permanently, and for a long time, the history of the United States of America and the world. In the aftermath, G.W. Bush launched September 12, 2001, what has commonly been called total war against terrorism, extending it to the Iraq of Saddam Hussain, two years after the invasion of the Afghanistan. This crusade, after the destruction of the Iraq, shook the Middle East and bore the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, today. This is the most serious consequence of the war in Iraq that few have condemned and many believe illegitimate now. It is always smarter after. Tribute to the rare courageous voice having denounced what looked like the prelude to a destabilization of the Middle East and, therefore, of the world. Thanks to Chirac and Schröder (which many experts fail to highlight the role in the company of french president), but also to their brilliant Foreign Ministers, Dominique de Villepin and Joska Fischer. The first for his famous speech of February 14, 2003, with Gaulliens accents, honoring old Europe mocked by the Donald Rumsfeld cynic, lyrically arm of G. W. Bush, and the second replicating the same Rumsfeld, before the world: "how want you convince me that yourself you do not are satisfied! It was the last time that European democracy shone, on the eve of a conflict that has marked the world and whose consequences are dramatically. Europe is almost marginalized in the US-Iran negotiations, despite the effort, paltry, Laurent Fabius to appear on photos after the real negotiations between John Kerry and Mr. Zafad Zarif, the Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs. The french Minister of Foreign Affairs does not, hesitate to mark from time to time the role of the France, to abuse the term hollow: it's a good agreement, but we remain vigilant. At his discharge, Europe uses the begayement to find a solution to the Greek crisis.

In 2003, a young Democratic Senator distinguished himself by denouncing a war that justified nor to U.S. vital interests and even less for questionable reasons of weapons of mass destruction argument advanced and repeated until the nausea by the Bush administration. It was Barak Obama, prefiguring already its ambition, coupled with intellectual probity and an exceptional oratorical talent. By this attitude, Obama has demonstrated that courage can register also and especially in the refusal of military adventure, even seem at odds with American opinion whose patriotism was acquired to the Warrior shouts of George w. Bush. This attitude has been presented, wrongly, as argument handicapping the young American black candidate against his rival Hillary Clinton was rather favorable to the arguments of the successor to her husband, to finish with Saddam Hussain. Despite the pathetic cry, ' Shame on you Obama ", the former first lady during the Democratic primary, Barak Obama was elected with the heavy challenge to translate into reality its famous slogan:"Yes we can ". By elegance or political calculation, Obama offered the Secretary of State Hillary Clinton associating it to his foreign policy during his first term. This cohabitation took place without incident, but also dull. Flat however, attacks in Bengazi and emails private ex Secretary of State could seal his new candidacy, as the American press reveals their contents.


While I sillonnais East Coast (New York, New Jersey, Washington, Etc.), the Morocco news caught me up naturally with the grotesque series of two french journalists trapped by smarter than them. Funny story! There is talk of blackmail, trap and trap (I would almost say, a trap to cons!). Journalistic ethics takes a shot, while the Kingdom is Cree victory. But beware, it is perhaps that of a history between predators! The mastersingers of the Palace had a head start and the greed of journalists did the rest. The real winners in this story are, finally, counsel for the King. They deserve the 2 or 3 million that it has removed from the mouth of the naive, and not less scrupulous, journalists. Big loser in this story: the truth. You will never know, despite recordings in the hands of justice, the mischief-makers between corruption and corrupt. It is when same curious to read one day this book make sense teach US new things in the arcana of power to the Morocco! A more.

 In the meantime, the first municipal elections after the constitution of 2011, offer a spectacle to hold the nose: money has taken hold on democracy. More seriously, we talk about the role of money in the electoral campaign. The particular drug money. The index is pointed to WFP, the party of the powerful Advisor to the King, whose president constantly hammers a slogan, on the edge of indecency: Yes we PAM! Not less. This party had taken the Ben Ali, Tunisia, system as a model before the Arab spring, symbolizes all derivatives abuse, traffic of influence and patronage. A single strategy to circumvent the democratic constraints and the demands of the street: money.

It is not surprising since this party roundup the Presidency of 5 regions on 12, with the richest, that of Casa-Mohammedia-Settat, offered its Secretary-General by a trick of legerdemain, while he lost the Town Hall of Mohammedia. And PAM, who loses wins! Behind it, unnatural alliances between politicians NIR, yet member of the Government and in principle allied with the PJD and powerful WFP. But we forgot that Michael Mezouar, Minister for Foreign Affairs and SG of NIR, most obeys the directives of the black cabinet of advisors to the ethics of government alliances. Mr. Benkirane comes to learn it at his own expense. Need we point out that the Foreign Minister has already its liabilities in 2010, then Minister of finance, a financial scandal which would have resulted in the death policy, see prison in any democratic system. Mr. Mezouar and its Treasurer-General, Mr. Bensouda, in an exchange of good processes, are granted bonuses in the State coffers. Quite simply. The details of this transaction, giving the nausea, are accessible to the public! Mezouar justified this gap by a "common practice", using or abusing an article of the protectorate in 1949 governing the public service. Case closed. At his discharge, he has not denied the transaction, sic. It remains protected, probably for services rendered. Better, he was given the keys to defend the national cause internationally, not less. 

 As I walked in the desert, a few months ago, I met a nomad who has released me a universal trilogy which more is, while the story of the Prophet Youssef, Salvation the covers. This trilogy challenges us on what happened to our time. Meditating on derivatives linked to corruption, greed and lack of transparency, I shall relinquish this concentrate of wisdom, which applies to the above case, in this case:

 القصة النبوية ليوسف عليه السلام معروفة في القرآن حول تآمر إخوته عليه، إلخ الكريم،…

والكل يعلم أن إخوته في البئر لكي تكمل الذئاب العمل وتفترسه تركوه!  

وفعلاً اكتشفته الذئاب في الليل وهي تلتهث فرحاً بالغنيمة… لكن الذئاب لها قوانين وأولهم أنها تطيع خالقها!

و هاكذا أوقفهم في الحين رئيس العصابة قائلا:

قفوا، لا تمسوا هذا المخلوق، إنه نبي، ولو نحن ذئاب مفترسة، لن يكتب علينا الله أن نمس نبياً ولو نعيش زمنٍ سيأتى وتضهر فيه ثلاثة علامات:

1.  الحق يعود مدسوس

2.  و الشرع يعود فلوس

5 h  والكراسي تجلس عليهم اللصوص

In french:

The story of Prophet Yusuf, that salvation covers, is known and is narrated in the Qur'aan about the conspiracy framed by his brothers, etc.

Everyone knows that his brothers have abandoned in the well hoping that wolves complete work and devour it!

Actually, wolves have discovered the night salivating of pleasure to discover such prey. Except that wolves obey rules and the first, is to obey God, their creator. Thus, the leader of the Pack stopped immediately with them:

"Do not touch this being, he is a prophet. Even though we are wild wolves, it will not be written on us to touch a prophet, and this even if we lived in a future period which will appear three phenomena:

  1. The truth is hidden
  2. Justice turns into money (corruption)
  3. And the thieves took the seats (power).

 Is this our time already?

The desert: another look

The desert: the living environment

See article in bear Magazine: OURS_Issue_8_Natural_Solution_AS

See the document: Zaila_Assoctiation_en_projets_evaluation

Unlike the common clichés, and accepted by the majority of people, the desert is a space full of partially human, plant and animal life. It imposes on all of these species to survive, a permanent and relentless law: any unnecessary effort. In other words, a draconian economy and permanent use of the main source of life: water or the lack of humidity in the air. Let us be inspired by plants and animals of the desert which apply this rule of life wonderfully, and challenge, constantly, to respect human!



In the company of my friend Shawn, we passed, in Echentouf, somewhere between Erg Es Sedra and Iriqui, on December 30, a night "Khlâa", i.e., without anything, neither food nor cover! Sand bed and the sky starred as roof. What a privilege! But what cold also.


I rarely even admired cluster Amit (Les Pleillades), pursued by El Mechbouh (East), until dawn. It does the overtake, it, seems that at the end of the world, according to a nomadic tale! Reassuring, given the gap almost constant, on for thousands of years between the two constellations!


During this long night, Milky voice warmed us the pupils, reminding us that our beautiful planet is only a speck of dust in the universe and that its brief history, is only a moment in the absolute. The big and little Dipper playing the clock around the fixed polar invariably indicate North, in the middle of constellations operating harmoniously in a magical show. Echentouf, a beautiful bouquet of dunes in the middle of the part of the Hamada du Draa, just before arriving at the dried Lake Iriqui. Echentouf, means "Mane", and refers to this place because of the resemblance, by far, branches of tamaris atop the dunes, with a beautiful "horse mane". The North, one can see an ocean of sand, the beautiful waves starting at the El Abeidlya dunes and ending at El Alem (dune witness!). El Hadj Ahmed, the last dune isolated before the plain of Iriqui, and tamaris Atlat Abainouche, on behalf of a nomadic, peacefully buried heroine at the foot of this magical tree, close to the West, this space of erg. A poem to the memory of Abainouche, is still flowing tears at the few nomadic knowing the history and geography of this region, entitled: "here the tenderness with Abainouche was buried. Simply! To meditate when we see free rally ransacked in this region…

IMG_0240 Alfoula_0123

On the left the bed Draa, still woven by a sparse forest of tamarisk and Afersig, form the southern border to this arid area where there are still plants of El Arad, the inevitable El Aggaya, El Ghassal, El Yessrif, and other Remth Lavender plant…

Tamarisk, with acacias, are the main points of rest for nomads, since the dawn of time, and provide useful benchmarks in the large expanses of desert. The family of this tree, very resistant to drought, with long roots, consists of three sorts that nomads don't ever confuse: Letl, the larger the thick trunks, a sort of baobab tree, creating in him alone a micro-climate. Akawar, less thick trunks and the dark-green leaves, to the salty taste, very much appreciated by the camels. Finally, Afersig to the fine and regular branches, upright vertically, grows mainly in the vicinity of the wadis. Found in this Hamada a hundred kinds of trees or "Ewscp", such as the tamarisks, acacia, Sea buckthorn and other Awarache. "Ewscp", means for the nomads every tree that can survive several years drought. Conversely, 'Rbia', i.e. grass or spring, means the "ephemeral" plants that grow as a result of rare rains or simply by the phenomenon of condensation of the lack of moisture collected night. Plants "Rbia" rarely survive in the spring and dry out quickly during the relentless desert summer.

Nomadic lexicon of plants and animals of the desert:


This time I was spoiled in more than one respect. Ten days of market, forgiveness, happiness!, through the most beautiful desert of the Morocco. It is that along this journey, I was arrested, constantly, by the smile of plants, after several years of drought. But how their seeds survive after a long incubation period? Mystery and magic of life.

In the company of Abdul Rahman, the Encyclopaedia of the desert, I more learned – and refreshed my memory-, in a few days than what I struggled to understand in several botanical references on the desert. Amazing! The desert is an open library, with contemplation and humility as major codes of reading. No need to know the original Latin or Greek names of these plants to drill the mysteries, and even less the virtues! Over the caravan, Addou declined me, with her soft voice and his parsimonious gesture, the identity of several desert plants, according to three criteria: name, usually rather descriptive, taste, especially the place and the usefulness for livestock, Callistus in particular. We must remember that the camel is the main vector of knowledge of the flora of the desert. Reaction against this or that plant, the nomad deduced the usefulness, and sometimes the medicinal cure. The Alchemy of these plants can be found elsewhere in camel milk, magical nectar, which only nomads know and exploit the benefits. I did not hesitate to note on a small notebook the valuable information, stripped by Addou, on this flora that many are unaware, but more serious, some – more – sacked and destroyed with impunity. Now came the time to share this another way – that of the nomad – on the flora of the Hamada du Draa, through a few plants that we were amazed during this unforgettable Caravan:

IMG_0264 IMG_0316

First lesson recalled by Abdulai, knowledge base of every Shepherd of the desert, is the influence of the terrain on the plants. Where their middle ranking, which also determines their ability to withstand drought. So those that grow in wadis, relatives of an aquifer are fat and paradoxically less resistant to drought, as familiar to the water. On the other hand, those that grow in the sand (Sdar Erramla: plants in sand, such as SB, Legseiba, and other Anchal) do not need of groundwater, irrigation moisture determined by sand overnight. Others survive or thrive, in the Rocky hamada or stony hills (El Koudya), such as EL Homeidh. Plants champions, but rare, can be found in the three environments. Another medium inhospitable to plants is the reg, the clay ground and hard, kind of dried lake, the impermeable soil moisture for plants.


Let's review, these fondled plants of the gaze, over several caravans:

  • 1. Al Harcha, "rough", resistant to drought. 2. Taynaset, "sweet", appreciated camels. 3. Me ghaizel, due to its similarity to the "me ghaizel: stick to spin the hair". 4. Nassoufa, "bitter", miracle to extensive medicinal plant. 5. Al Jamra, "Piece of Ember", pungent, useful to livestock during cold nights. 6. El Guarca, "pinceuse", very acid and vitamin. 7. SB, multi-utile plant, not pushing in the sand, nourishes and quenches the camels, to make ropes and barriers, and is a refuge for many lizards, reptiles, beetles, etc. 8. Nsail, close to SB, highly resistant to drought. 9. Lehmä, "Heating plant", source of heat for the camels in the winter. 10. Jerjir, plant leaves green and juicy with beautiful flowers-roses clovers, beauty queen of desert plants. 11. Segaat Lernab, "the wick of the Hare", beautiful plant star, resembling the wick on the front of the Hare in this region. 12. Baslet Leghzal, "the gazelle ognon"; the gazelle, attracted by its smell, can have an autonomy of water for an entire summer, gnawing sparingly this ognon buried in the sand. 13. Al Homeidh, plant acid leaves, grows to El Koudya, through the slots in the rocks. Refreshing and very vitamin, it is appreciated by lizards whip tail and the shepherds in the event of hunger or thirst. Can be fatal to sheep, but safe for goats. 14. Legtaff, 'pistachio sheets', color and taste of pistachio, popular with the shepherds. 15. Al Harra, «the roucoula of the desert ', very spicy, divine salad for the shepherds. 16. ES-saâdane, sweet and rare, appreciated the camels and goats. 17. Bou Sraisra, "garlands", with a nice percussion in contact with goats, is part of the bitter plants family; 18. Al Yaamim, spicy and rare. 19. Lemkharsa, plant braided cord, slightly spicy. 20. Tafsa, yellow, fluorescent flowers, slightly spicy. 21. Tleiha, small acacia. 22. Semna, oily and soft, purple flowers. 23. Gueid Naam, "Barriers of the ostrich", because ostriches encoublent! 24. Tabezwaguet, sweet and refreshing. 25. Lehbalia, «Pincushion plant», very rare. 26. El Aggaya, a plant abundant, very harmful for the camels to the juicy green beans despite the drought; enigmatic as to its benefits for livestock. 27. El Ghassal, the lavender plant, to taste salty, effective for washing hands and clothes. 28. Anesrif, plant of the El Ghassal family, but more green. 29. El Araad, very resistant to drought, abundant in the plain between Sidi Naji and Zmaila. 30. Dhemran, plant with leafy green Pellet. 31. El Guerzim, Sea buckthorn very vitamin fruit, small red cherries, appreciated by the Wolves of the desert. 32. Legseiba, highly toxic and fatal safe for camels and goats, appreciated grows in the sand next to SB. 33. Tourza, highly toxic. 34. Lebteima, plant hallucinogen and dangerous; always green and juicy, attended in the bed of the Draa. 35. Oum Elbaina, the milk, very toxic plant. 36. Al Ammaya, "the blinding", very toxic milk can lead to blindness in contact with eyes. 37. Oum Rokba, giving Smar, thin reeds, to make mats. 38. Awarache, beautiful and magical plant at wood end, resistant to heat and drought, produces pink flowers spring, even in the absence of rain; its appreciated leaves of camels can be also used to tanner bladders!

IMG_0154 (113)

You can expand the list to other plants that are the delight of camels, goats and other animals, after the rain, such as Alok, Remth, postmortem, Adrach, Negd, Talaboute, El Had, Tan, and other El Gahwane and Echgaa, Addamia, Red chalk, Al Gorte, a sort of alfalfa; Al Horf, letter (layout of a letter of Arabic alphabet)… Al wake, fern of the desert… Al Khafour (such as Addamya), Essad (plant happiness! Region Zbar and El barga)… Aisha Glia, looks like the hair of Aisha anonymous Bedouin… Al Yalma, grey plant, AL Hanzab, kind of wild turnips… Laghbeira, small dust, dusty plant pushing only the foot of tamarisk. Arramram, salt plant, still wet and damp, good dining Al Karkaz, this plant fattens the camels. Al Karkaz, said the nomadic legend, has vowed to go up to the hump of the camel and stay there. Ccontrairement to the cliché admitted by many that the bump is a water reserve, whereas it is accumulated by what the animal eats. Bouzghaiba, hairy leaves, looks like AL Karkaz 

Picture 342

The fauna of the Hamada du Draa is no longer her home… Quads gradually hunt camels. Free fun of rally and Quads in this beautiful desert. Just the cancelled Dakar, other events such as the Rallye des Gazelles and other marathons took over, under the blanket shameful to help local populations, to sack and destroy! 


About wildlife, I took the opportunity to update some information on what remains. This fauna has been almost decimated by the ruthless hunting of the princes of the Gulf, predators of modern times with devastating and sophisticated equipment (glasses, 4 x 4 guns powerful, etc.). The Spaniards and their 4 x 4, the nomads ' Made in Taiwan ' and their Quads, are completing this bleak picture: gut flora and scaring away his last reduced wildlife! And this, for an "ephemeral" pleasure and an immeasurable stupidity. Below, the champions of the survival of this fauna, innocent witnesses of "drought in the heart" of human:

  1. Fennec, the clever Fox of desert, virtually disappeared from the right bank of the Draa.
  2. El Warn, the warrant of the desert, the precious friend and dauphin for the nomad, which protects it from the poisonous danger of vipers, virtually disappeared.
  1. Al Afaa, the sand Viper, making toy at night with the gerbils and mice but never attack human.
  2. The Wolf of the Draa River, a well organized but increasingly rare species.
  3. The Hare of the wilderness, relatively abundant around the tamaris.
  4. The Jerboa, color sand, hopping on his long legs-spring.
  5. Zellem: lizard, very fast, called lightning, fairly abundant, color sand, feeds on insects, and hides in holes around the bushes (5-10 cm). 
  6. Cherchmall, Sinc or fish Sands (lizard, 8-15 cm), form of fish – more pasta-, rapidly sinking into the sand in case of danger; skin smooth scales, can move several metres under the sand and sow his pursuers; sand color with spots, in windows on the sides. 
  7. Boubreis, a kind of small lizard living in the pebbly environment; very quick and hard to catch. Pink spotted. (10-15 cm). 
  8. ElArrem, this lizard is the King of camouflage; plays the death and remains frozen and perfectly still; his head resembles a pebble; can bite but is not venomous. 

Finally look no further in this table the gazelles, Bustards, partridges and a multitude of birds, decimated several years.



Stories & reflections

Stories & reflections

"You think a trip, but it is the journey that makes you…" Nicolas Bouvier


The time, the ruler of all developments, the Enhancer of wrinkles, the pest of the youth, the polisher of rocks… The time that Heals wounds and mitigates the passions. It is the same late ally of truth. That brings things to a continually harassed harmony.

Time that without action, leads to boredom and without consistency of principles inevitably leads to decay and degeneration.

But be careful if it relies too much on principles, they yield! The balance being in the movement…

Time without the "mastery" of trajectories, so space and destiny, is synonymous with random with, at the end, uncertain and certainly fatal outcomes. But the man that masters ultimately? Nothing, or little things!

  • "Having the luxury it is well, not to be dependent on it is better!" AS

         Nomadic I stayed. I am simply a man of the desert. I there am born in a tent, I there grew up, kept goats and learned one essential thing: the desert belongs to no and belongs to everyone. As the sea or the mountain, it can be cruel to those who do not comply with it. And respect of this desert inculcated me respect for others. It is in this respect for nature that can flourish finally relations and reflections. I also learned through my studies in physics, that the known is finished and the unknown is infinite and that ultimately the science cannot claim, at best, observe the phenomena and describe them partially, but never explain. That reassures more than a conscience.

 Time again seems to stop to immortalize what memory deign to offer to the pen. This calm Finally, this serenity, this awareness of the ephemeral and this back to basics are only capable of violating, sometimes the secrets of memory. A memory from which flow images so distant, sometimes so unreal and that lead me to ask myself the question: have I crossed everything? What abyss? What chasm between this desert indescribable of the Hamada du Draa where I kept, more than 30 years ago, proudly goats, market kilometres to go to the school to me hamid, stayed under the tent, played, barefoot on the hot sand,…, and this office 10th floor Tower ITU (International Telecommunication Union) in Geneva where comes to mind this beautiful reflection of Malraux : "A life is worth nothing, but nothing beats a life!". I would add that a life is first meetings; meetings with events and spaces, involving sublime and others which are less. All governed by guided chance, certainly, by a necessity! At the end of any adventure, any evasion, is the time of the reflections that lead eventually all evidence as no more a human that an elementary particle of matter is master of his fate. What admission! Equivalent to a particle without memory man, undergoing random assaults and meetings. "After all there is death", said, quite rightly, an old proverb nomadic prompting us to live more calmly our little life, this wonderful moment in eternity…

            I think my friends from childhood, Yahya El Wali, Mansour, Mneicir, Brahim Ould Ahmed Baba, Mohammed Ould El Mustapha, El Mahjoub Ould M'Barek, and others, to my brother Abbas of course… And the primary school to me hamid: those moments stolen from the company of goats with which I learned the essential during these years. Goats are very mobile and undisciplined, I learned with them freedom and indiscipline.

            I think these beings that I more than Crusaders and who have disappeared since. Moulay little, this sublime face releasing the nobility, father of the ingenious system of distribution of parcels and mail between the inhabitants of the Draa and their relatives in Casablanca, and that tipped over with his truck in a ravine of the Lord Atlas in 1976. His system naturally has not survived it. Mokhtar Ould Abderrahmane, reminded, in full glory, by destiny in an another ravine of the inhospitable Atlas a certain month of September 1972. My cousin Mohammed Larbi, this big fellow with a black beard and eternal smile, only gallantry and generosity have pushed, one day in fall 1964, to climb a Palm Diane smooth to snatch a few dried fins at the top to offer to a young Bedouin, Faitem, in fire for leather short bread. Under his gaze, wonderful body rocking and crashed on the ground clay and dry. He continued to smile a few hours before going off in the middle of the shrill cries of women who mourned the disappearance of an Angel. To comfort his sister Tamouna collapsed, he even managed to utter the famous phrase from his father Sidi Mohammed, murdered 35 years rather: "Let life be short if it was beautiful!". Tamouna, what fate! What woman to the single first name, continued to live with detachment, perpetuating in dignity, the memory of these two exceptional men, his father, the Lord of the desert and his brother Angel from me hamid, a friend of everyone: nomads, Berbers, Drawa and Jews of the Ksar me Hall where he spent most of his time. Khalti Fatma and Ma Lalla saintes, holding that there are beautiful, pure and simple in this civilization of the South of Morocco ignored but still remaining. Until when?

            This light spouting regularly from the darkness of my memory of child 3 years, with my mother – God bless her soul – giving me a second time life after a scorpion bite. This maternal love, with the help of the Almighty, had the last word allowing me, since, to support or to avoid other stings, to discover so many things, to enjoy the life with a sense of detachment telling me that, anyway, since that day everything that happens to me is one more unexpected, including these lines. A few months after this second birth suddenly disappeared Lehjeila, my mother, at the age of 34. And puzzles supplied legends in your regard, my small Partridge, Lehjeila. More than 30 years after your death, the memory of the brief existence of a female light, Uncategorized, scored an entire region extending north from Mauritania to the South of Morocco in the Hamada du Draa. Still, the stories of old nomads, between two glasses of tea in the shade of an acacia tree render details sublime of the life of this young Bedouin, born somewhere in the South of the Oued Draa at the end of the 1920s, who has lived his childhood in the region of Smara, stronghold of the great nomadic tribe of the R families ' guibat , and acquired knowledge, until there reserved to men, in the wake of the great scholars of the time such as Sidi Mohamed and Konti, Sid Ahmed Elbakkai, Sheikh Malaanaine,…  These scholars drove famous nomadic universities, pole know and knowledge in the Sahara. By tolerating the presence of "small Partridge with big eyes" in the ranks of their male disciples, they allowed, unwittingly, the sudden emergence of this young woman in their closed circle. Having mastered the basic knowledge of Quranic education provided to all nomadic children, girls and boys between 5 and 10 years, Lehjeila, with the endorsement and the complicity of his father Sheikh Hammadi Ouled Abdulai, continued to expand his knowledge from other disciplines such as Arabic poetry and medicine. At the age of about 16 years, "Small Partridge" separated from his male comrades in control of religious knowledge "AL Fiqh" and received from Smara scholars permission to teach the Koran to small and to explain it to the great. It is his first victory. When Sidi Mohamed El Konti spoke to her: "Lehjeila, this area is too narrow for the knowledge that you have acquired. 'Ll distribute it elsewhere", he does not measured the impact of this phenomenon on the Hamada du Draa and the peaceful Palm of me hamid during, alas, a brief existence… It was also called "Chaira", the poet, because of its ability to respond spontaneously in poems. His knowledge of Arabic medicine, thanks to a personal effort of reading and research on the plants of the desert, allowed him to treat many people and even practicing surgical operations, without anesthesia of course, on the eyes. It is difficult to speak of that which at the time was Fqiha, Chaira and t. At the end of the year 1959, never me hamid had seen as many world, coming from the southern part of the Draa, converge on the mausoleum of Sidi Khalil, to accompany that founded the first Koranic school to me hamid, outclassed the men and illuminated by his knowledge and beauty, an entire region.  It is part but it is everywhere.  His connection, the teologue Si Ahmed El Asmi summarized his impression, the tears in his eyes: your mother is a sign of the signs of God, Ayatoun Min Aimen Allahi.

            And what about my father's sublime face, the piercing and healthy look, incisive and always well placed replica… Mohamed Sheikh is part of this race of Lords of the desert endangered. Please open another chapter to pay him tribute.

"Grab these moments that offers life, thats all that belongs to you!" AS 20.11.99

            What harmony, what peace and happiness when you set its verticality, i.e. dealing with God, the creator. Our horizontal relationship with our fellow then settle them even, conflicts and agitation fade in an unchangeable order. Why man, finally, is so important on this earth, while mastery, in reality, few things?

  My window on the 10th floor of the ITU Tower, in this month of November, I see the place of Nations obviously with the massive Palace of the Nations (UN), before which stands a huge Chair disability foot, symbol of the fight against anti-personnel mines. My left the blue building sky of WIPO, Geneva architectural pride, barely hides the Intercontinental hotel. Opposite Lake Geneva, today greenish and slightly agitated, harmoniously cutting colors fall, yellow – pale, both banks Swiss and French. Two flags are buzzing on the new building of the WMO, elliptical-shaped, while the Monbrillant building, freshly opened, cut this beautiful harmony of shapes and colors. What a mess! While my gaze caresses the discrete waves from Geneva, my thought through another path, that of memory, a memory from which flow images, sublime faces, sounds, scents,…, and especially this timelessness of the desert. Yes the desert which was passed on to me that I can't describe, I'm can be in any case which helps me take the ephemeral to project themselves into the Lord. As the wind from erasing our footsteps and sand burning the image of the desert in our memories. Those who spent more than two nights, walked to the harmonious rhythm of a camel, listened the magic whistle of the tamarisk trees between two glasses of tea, well seize the meaning of these words.

  Frankfurt January 5, 2001 at 21:40 on the Lufthansa plane:

 What happiness, what peace and what serenity again, allowing the memory of spring and mind to express both emotions more or less contained until now…

 I take this stopover of a few hours, to Frankfurt, coming from Casa and going to Geneva, to immortalize feelings that traverse me the spirit for several weeks. Intersection of reflections on life, of course, but also specific memories gushing from my memory, with filigree this research, still paltry, review or establish benchmarks by also virtual, giving a meaning to a life whose most escapes us, and cause. That is to say the difficulty of the task, when well even the detachment which seems to win me sometimes gives more clarity to my ideas and can be more objectivity. Regardless, it seems to me that this is the moment to lend themselves to this confrontation without detour, no fear of confusion and even fewer cultural dependence in the narrow sense of the term. Once again it is in the desert that my mind draws an inspiration that makes it tender to this universality, if inconspicuous elsewhere, where the man is bare facing himself, facing this environment both hostile and friendly – as it takes we complicate or cheating – luxury and the universe, cosmic unpretentious course. I feel that my body turns into camel for the market, while my mind is crossed by sublime images in connection with people who crossed him before me, chansonnant often: "La Ilaha Illa Allah", "there is no God but God", confining the man in his ephemeral passage on this earth and conjunction of the creator, the Lord. "The desert mark us, but we do not mark", résumais I my thinking, in the shade of a tamarisk and taking a delicious tea nomadic, referring to our traces that fade as soon as the first came wind then that something indescribable brand who asked her perspective on this desert.

  Not I am not talking about the exotic desert or elsewhere to describe, and even less to attract people in search of sensational to sublime spaces I want to be protected from the devastating tourism. Not my approach is elsewhere, it is this indescribable happiness, to project myself into a timelessness in the company of beings sublime who are the emanation of this nomadic lifestyle, endangered. I am thinking, of course, Lehjeila Ment Hammadi Ould Abdulai, Aisha Ment El Wali, Hammadi Ould Abdulai, Hmaidana, Ba Alla and others that this sand has buried peacefully several years ago and who have joined their creator leaving us memories and bright stories on the eternal ephemeral…

  •   GENEVA MARCH 28, 2000, 3:45 PM

My thoughts go now to the sublime Iraq. The book of Jean-Marie Benjamin, "The Iraq, the Apocalypse", which I'm currently reading upset me. We learn how it has organized the loosest of genocide of humanity. How, indeed, under the pretext of international law it watered this country by thousands of tons of Depleted Uranium – equivalent, according to experts, 6 bombs of Hiroshima – during the war of the Gulf of course, but more serious, this operation of destruction continues, with impunity today. What martyr country this Iraq. But this Iraq is indomitable while plotting his enemies. This country gave human civilization three pillars: agriculture, Scripture and law were all invented by the homos Mesopotamian. Sublime country, country cursed. How sad to see private Iraqis for nearly more than ten years, minimum conditions so that a society can function. The health system, which was one of the most developed of the Middle East, has collapsed, causing one of the highest rates of child mortality on the planet. Iraqi hospitals, jewels of the civil development of Iraq in the 1980s, it turned into real jails, with sinister decor, a suffocating odor, without any comfort where Iraqi women very worthy, accompany their children to their last breath. Often without tears, without shouting, without wailing, with this accusatory look towards an international community complicit by its silence and its cowardice. What sacrilege to see indeed the country which offered to human civilization, in its dawn, under Hammou Rabi, the first Treaty of law governing a human society, see dictate the arbitrariness of the resolutions of a Board's security completely manipulated by the single superpower to perpetuate the most cowardly of crimes: destroy a whole country under the embargo.

  • TVG LAUSANNE – PARIS: 27.8.2000 at 7:20 pm: 

I left Lausanne to Paris aboard the TGV to the romantic name, heart line. I'm going on mission to Paris for a few days for a SAP, my specialty to the ITU forum in Geneva. Travel by train always give me a sense of peace, barely disturbed by some travellers jostling. Seeking its place, who tries to put her suitcase in a corner or who continues to blow after the sprint for the last minutes. From my window I admire the sunset of August, razing the Jura and projecting a golden yellow on the beautiful Swiss countryside. The regular speed of TGV strangely stimulates a virtual journey through my memory and ignited the sublime moments, faces, landscapes, meetings and reflections. All bathing in indescribable serenity and detachment. It is 19 h 50, we are preparing to cross the border Switzerland-France at Vallorbe. 8:15 p.m., stop at Frasne, a small town of incredible sadness, three minutes to stop appeared me to be long. Regardless, the hostess comes to announce that the TGV leaving Frasne and the bar of the TGV is finally open. This bar where we serve sandwiches, without flavour or taste, moreover, at very expensive prices. Just this open bar, masos are scrambling in a compact and very polished tail also. It goes without saying that I preferred to sit comfortably on my chair and continue my virtual trip… Comes first this week stay in Cyprus where I discovered for the first time this island very rich past, the painful present, following the tearing of 1974, and the uncertain future as is that of the nearby Middle East.  As in all my travels I keep in my memory especially the kindness, the smile of the people, punctuated by a discreet pride Recalling the independence of the island from its neighbours. 20 h 45, stop at Mouchard, funny name (!) anyway, given to this town. Either. From cookie, our TVG line heart seems to roll, as its name suggests, finally at a brisk pace. Dole, Dijon, which always reminds me of the mustard sauce. 23 h 20, arrival at Paris Gare de Lyon. Night at the hotel Paris-Lyon-Bastille, rue Parrot.  My stay is planned here for 5 nights. I love this Lyon-Bastille neighborhood known for its good restaurants and a direct access to the other corners of Paris and suburbs. 8:30, breakfast at the hotel and departure, via the RER A towards Val de Fontenay to my forum. After a day, back in Paris at the hotel, shower and prayer. Fast reading of newspapers, Libe, including Le Monde. The event of the day or the weekend is of course the likely resignation of Jean-Pierre Chevènement, Minister of the Interior of the Jospin government. This atypical politician, champion of Republican virtue, always distinguished by his outspokenness and its independent positions reflecting a great intellectual probity and integrity rare among politicians. Interesting this case Chevènement who bother but never indifferent. "A Minister it closed its mouth or it resigns", let it go after a Council of Ministers chaired by Mitterrand, in 1991. This miracle of the Republic, who returned from a trip to the afterlife, after 8 days in a deep coma in September 98, following anesthesia for a benign operation. Its most courageous position it was about the shameful Gulf war that the Americans have led against the Iraq. Chevenement, then Minister of defence of François Mitterrand, refused to endorse this war…  The story is trying to prove him right.

  • September 2, 2000: TGV Paris-Lausanne

Sitting in the No. 11 car, place no. 25, I see again my small in Paris last week and I enjoyed two pleasures: do not live in Paris and undergo this permanent stress which reads on the faces of the people, and to return from time to time to make short stays as it is, all the same an interesting town. I was able to enjoy my free hours in roaming at the edge of the seine, the latin quarter and the District of the nearby my hotel Bastille. I enjoyed the rue de la Roquette and its lively pubs and especially the multitude of bookstores in theme with the latin quarter which more is, open late at night. Although his stay was not cultural, I could not help but visit the IMA (Arab World Institute), one of the best works of the era Mitterand. There's everything on the Arab world. Public access computers allow easy searching for books and references. So, I could see a list of 217 articles on Western Sahara.

  • The desert, Iriqui, December 2002

Sand bed and the sky starred as roof. What a privilege! But what cold also.

I rarely even admired cluster Amit (the Pleiades), pursued by El Mechbouh (East), until dawn. It does the overtake, it, seems that at the end of the world, according to a nomadic tale!

Reassuring, given the gap almost constant, on for thousands of years between the two constellations!

During this long night, the milky way warmed us the pupils, reminding us that our beautiful planet is only a speck of dust in the universe and that its brief history, is only a moment in the absolute. The big and little Dipper playing around the polar clock, fixed, invariably indicate North, in the middle of constellations operating harmoniously in a magic show, observed closely by Caciopee W-shaped.

Echentouf, a beautiful bouquet of dunes in the middle of the part of the Hamada du Draa, just before arriving at the dried Lake Iriqui. Echentouf, means "Mane", and refers to this place because of the resemblance, by far, branches of tamaris atop the dunes, with a beautiful "horse mane". The North, one can see an ocean of sand, the beautiful waves starting at the El Abeidlya dunes and ending at El Alem (dune witness!). El Hadj Ahmed, the last dune isolated before the plain of Iriqui, and tamaris Atlat Abainouche, on behalf of a nomadic, peacefully buried heroine at the foot of this magical tree, close to the West, this space of erg. A poem to the memory of Abainouche, is still flowing tears at the few nomadic knowing the history and geography of this region, entitled: "here was buried with Abainouche tenderness. Simply! To meditate when we see free rally ransacked in this region…

  • Journal_23_10_2004

This Saturday, 9th day of the Holy Ramadan, I finally open this log to is transcribe that inspire me true things, more or less contained emotions, is mix the sublime and the common, the anecdotal and the deep, futile and essentially… I hume life as a lightweight, elusive scent, where the unexpected supplants, often, the planned, to give a sense to an evolution which escapes us, ultimately, and for good reason!

After a sports morning, Askesis pool and football at Dorigny, sublime it is still the company's daughter Lehjeila late afternoon in the city. Passage in halal slaughter, for the purchase of meat for the Ramadan meal. My daughter Princess, offered me a dessert that she prepare herself for breaking the fast. I cracked, naturally.

Here I am on the couch, after breaking the fast and prayer of Maghrib… A glance at the news: CNN, Euro News, TSR… The US election on November 2 have pride in all newscasts. Each is in his analysis and his prognostications. Never a presidential election in the US was as important, so spending, so many passions both inside and outside USA. G. W. Bush, out, will face Democratic Senator John Kerry, with filigree in the quasi planetary direction of this unique superpower. G. W. Bush, the Republican, with two wars, two invasions, Afghanistan first in November 2001, following the September 11 attacks, and Iraq, in April 2003, to set an old quasi family account, and commit the biggest heist of all time: get their hands on Iraqi oil and subdue the country strategic in the chessboard of the Middle East. The Commander in Chief of this crusade against evil, as he likes to be, wants to eradicate terrorism at its source, the champion of preventive war: attack them before they attack us, found finally a simple arguments, not to say simplistic, for having membership of the majority of its citizens earned, since 11 September, by a quasi irresitible impetus to do battle with terrorism… Islamic.

It does not advance from the certainties, but through the dynamics of doubt, I could blow advisers to George w. Bush

  • January 2003: Sahara

I rarely felt as much desert and as many market (more than 200 kms). It is true that accompany the camel no listening to Brahim chansonner, this is not a pleasure, is a joy. What a trip in the past in fact… Through this desert, I often thought about these beings sublime which travelled it, there were chansonné, may be the same songs and poems from the desert, have enjoyed this same fire at the foot of a dune, felt this quiet lying on the sand soft after a long walk and admired the night sky so close there want to fondle the stars. By browsing these mythical places as Sidi Naji, Zmaila, Ez-Zahar, Lehreichat, Khbeitet El faa, Bou Twil, Lourein, Ma'amir, Oum Tobgane, El Alem, Lemdeibeh, Echentouf, and so on… These remains tell us, with an amazing clarity, one of the most beautiful pages of the nomadic activity in this region… How can you resist the memory of these nomadic families who lived in this desert, once prosperous until the end of the sixties, and which is today almost depopulated, except when a caravan of tourists spent, overwhelmed by the beauty and variety of landscapes while ignoring history and the richness of nomadic life.  Hammadi Ould Abdul Rahman, to him alone constituted a library of this civilization which, first, understood the limits of human control and conquer and that its ephemeral passage on this land allows him to just touch on a few mysteries and suffer, whatever it does and what it claims, the will of the creator. Yes this library has vanished peacefully, elongated shadow smooth a tamarisk in the arms of his daughter Fatma weeping and happy, at the bottom of itself, that his father had just accomplish the El Asr prayer. What beautiful epilogue and what loss about nomadic! In walking alone at night, I often thought about the stories and sublime legends that told me my grandmother El Kawriya, around a fire at Sidi Ahmed Er Rajput, the great saint venerated of the Reguibat on husband Hammadi Ould Addou the polyglot tribe since he mastered almost all dialects of the Sahara, from the Berber of Ait Atta in the South of the Morocco , to the Kawri of the black tribes of Sub-Saharan dialect, passing through Mauritania Hassaniya Arabic dialect. Of course that said masters said dialects mastery of traditions and subtle customs of these ethnic groups. El kawriya often spoke of his courage to the broad and Warrior of the term sense, her piety and rigour religious, a nomadic, desert plant life encyclopedic knowledge of medicine for emergency nursing the wounded, women or camels distressed birth, with a specialization in orthopedics on humans and camels with means to the image of the austerity of the desert. But in the desert I often found that the efficiency is inversely proportional to the means available. Knowledge is more important that might have it, say, and for good reason.


History of the Sahara

Historical overview:

 1912: Start of french protectorate in the Morocco. Battle of Sidi Bouatmane: The French army crushed the revolt of Ahmed El HIBA. A man stands out in this battle: Sidi Mohamed Ould Sidi Khalil. He realized very early that in front of the French army with its aircraft and its tanks, the bouchfars and the rudimentary guns, are not enough to stop the French occupation, disguised in protectorate. He uttered a famous phrase, prescient, to the surviving, animated by their faith but exhausted: "the plane is the best mount and the best mortar weapon!

1913, sidi Mohamed Ould Sidi Khalil, sets a course for Timbuktu, thinking that the french are not have feet yet. He developed a prosperous caravan trade between the mythical city and me hamid El Ghozlane. Before the Kasbah of Sidi Khalil, twice a year, the 1000 to 2000 camel caravans gathered to perform a 2 month journey to reach Timbuktu with their merchandise from Fez and Marrakech: tea, sugar, fabrics, copper and European products. Back with sub-Saharan goods, salt from Taoudenni especially, but also gold and slaves sometimes.

1920-1930: reign on me hamid and control of the caravan trade:

Ramco becomes the master of the caravan trade and even managed to ensure the exclusivity of the salt trade in the two axes: Taoudenni-Timbuctu and Taoudenni-me hamid.

Flanked by a formidable and effective caravaneer, Idir, they organise this trade in the 1920s, and Sidi Mohamed became one of the notable respected and feared in Timbuktu.

A me hamid, it restores the old Kasbah de Sidi Khalil, challenge to the sand and wind, are building a Citadel overlooking the Palm Grove of me hamid. The Summit of this citadel bordj, look shaved the great desert Hamada South, before crashing on the small Errich chain, near the Oasis of Zair.

1927: The Caid of Taoudenni, Sid El Mohktair, runs at point-blank french Lieutenant excited: Aurélien de Sèze. It is the first act of resistance to the french in their grip on Western Sahara

1928: Idir murdered an officer french, too sure of him, at his trial for weapons smuggling and insubordination to Taoudenni in the french

1930: Assassination of Sidi Mohamed Ould Sidi Khalil to me Hall by a commando of 5 persons belonging to the tribe of Aït Kankuri wishing to occupy me hamid by eliminating his master

1930-1932: fierce civil war between Aït Kankuri, supported by a large part of the tribe of Arib (Nouaji and Leguassem, inter alia) and the Sidi Khalil family supported by Oulad Bouden and Lebbadine.

Leguassem, the pious and Warrior of the Arib, allied to the Aït Khabbache. A fearsome Warrior El Guassmi Hammadi Ould Abdulai, encyclopedia of the desert, controlling the gun, the nomadic way of life, astrology, natural medicine, and all dialects of the nomads in the Sahara, distinguished himself in this war which represented to him a resistance to the french first. His alliance with the Ait Kankuri who fought the french Tafilalet and Jbel Saghro is justified to prevent the last lock in southern Morocco, me hamid, do not fall into their hand thus opening their domination in the Sahara, the last confines of the Anti atlas, southern-Sahel and Mauritania. Reducing the space of freedom to the ancestral nomadic lifestyle. However, he was unaware as all other allies of the Aït Kankuri the real motive of these, pandering to a looting and a hand placed on properties of the peaceful inhabitants of me hamid. Everything behind the praiseworthy pretext of fight against the french.

1932: Intervention by the french for the conquest of me hamid and the pacification of the Hamada d Draa. Defeat of Ait Kankuri and their allies

El Guassmi Hammadi Ould Abdul Rahman decided to leave with his family I hamid to go to Western Sahara and Mauritania. His daughter Lehjeila, born in 1926, followed him like his shadow, thirsty for knowledge and curiosity about everything…

Hammadi Ould Abdul Rahman settled near Smara, large nomadic centre

The battle of Ladharam Sam for responsible tourism

February 6, 2006

Should you do the trial of corruption, and therefore a corrupt, or one who denounced.

The answer seems simple when you know the expectations of the public for good governance, political, administrative and judicial…

However what just happened to the tribunal of Zagora on Friday, February 3, 2006 shows, if necessary is that there's a long way to go still, despite the good intentions. Back to the facts:

Dr. Labbas Sbai, originating from me hamid and having dual Moroccan and Switzerland, was arrested on Thursday, February 2 on the orders of the King's Prosecutor, Mr LAZHARI Abdelaziz, imprisoned and brought to court Friday to 15:00, found in an expeditious manner, without any preparation of his defence nor access to the folder. In months of an hour it was recognized guilty of contempt of court, cause disorder in a public place, etc., and sentenced to 6 months in prison firm, applicable suite. Transferred, with means worthy of the master of a criminal, handcuffed and escorted with several cars of police in Ouarzazate (166 Kms). He decided to do the hunger strike, and maintained its accusations of corruption and 3 senior mafia behavior that can be supported by evidence where appropriate. He has left no opportunity to develop its arguments and sentencing fell to silence this very annoying voice. It grows back to scenarios worthy of the years of lead, in 2006 Morocco.

According to the latest news, his current physical condition is very critical. Because, in addition to the hunger strike, which is of his own will, he underwent in prison a permanent psychic disturbance to crack.

Currently, steps are taken to the Swiss authorities, since the Dr. Ladharam Sam is citizen Swiss, married to a Swiss woman and father of two children, to grasp the Moroccan authorities at the highest level on this case of a gross violation of human rights.

On the other hand the Dr. Ladharam Sam is son of a great fire resistant El Hdj Mohamed – Cheick Sbai, companion of release of fire his Majesty Mohamed V in the South (see records of the historic visit of the father of independence to me hamid El Ghozlane February 25, 1958).

Given the seriousness of the situation we want to the release of the Dr. Ladharam Sam immediately and call for his trial, so that one judge may be corruption and not one who denounces.

Please receive our respectful greetings

Dr. Ladharam Sbai support Committee



The weekly newspaper: 4-10 March 2006

As what March 2006: by Abdellatif El Azizi

A me hamid Lghizlane, Ladharam Sam, doctor and hotelier, had the audacity to denounce the authorities which tolerate, in a complicit silence, camels, cigarettes and hashish trafficking in the border zone between the Morocco and the Algeria. His "J'accuse" cost him six months in prison.

"God is great, he will do justice to the doctor!" Any Mhamid is in shock. The arrest of Dr. Labbas Sbaï has put in turmoil the small town of me hamid Lghizlane to dual nationality, Moroccan and Swiss surgeon, was arrested on Thursday, February 2, on order of
Procureur du roi in Zagora. It was presented to the tribunal and tried in a speedy trial, the next day, before to be brought to the prison of Ouarzazate, handcuffed and escorted by several cars of gendarmes, recognized guilty of contempt of court, of disorder in a public place, and sentenced to six months in prison, applicable immediately. A judgment on appeal should be pronounced incessantly in Ouarzazate while counsel is still waiting for the transfer of his client's file to be at least able to visit him in prison!

The "I acknowledge" the doctor
"I felt come the conspiracy from January 23, 2006, the date at which I presented to the Prosecutor to attend the trial of one of my employees, accused by the kingpin of me hamid of killing a donkey", says the doctor. The prosecution had first been brought against him, until the authorities do reverse to endorse one of his workers responsible for the "murder". That him do we blame this time? Officially, abusive behaviour against the magistrates. In prison, he decided to go on hunger strike. "I stand by my accusations of corruption and behavior mafia of three senior authoritarian leaders in the region," he said. Unofficially, the authorities want it to have Bared their supposed links with traffickers smuggling in all kind through the Moroccan-Algerian border. On the side of the Court of Zagora, omerta is required. People are afraid to talk about what they call "a dirty business".

The doctor, who has abandoned a prestigious career as a surgeon in Switzerland to set up and develop a hotel structure in his native region, is therefore guilty of uttering a "J'accuse" obnoxious. It wants local authorities to let. In fact, his enmity with the kingpin and the Attorney was specifically in nearly three years, when the extent of the traffic begins to harm. Indeed, according to the testimony of an officer of the auxiliary forces, "for more than three years, a band of nomads arose of who knows where, settled around the bivouac of the doctor, located 50 km from me hamid, a few kilometers from the Algerian border." These nomads harass tourists who come down there and physically assaulted several times the camp staff".

"Our oasis is located not far from the Algerian border, sadly an important passage for all traffic of contraband (cigarettes, camels, hashish…). Sam recently was very worried about the situation, and feared for the safety of tourists and our customers,"said its Swiss associate, Laurence – Humbert Bajracharya. What is the reality of these accusations?

The origin of the contraband
Understand and describe the phenomenon of trafficking in any genre that knows the area, to return to the difficult years. With successive droughts, Affairs were not particularly good for fellahs and from many individuals, outcasts of neighboring tribes, themselves are converted back into traffic. Jamal Agkbib, president of the Association of friends of Zagora, the rise of smuggling is a direct consequence of the misery prevailing in the region. "Drought has pushed people to look for ways to survive, the less scrupulous took the party engage in smuggling".
Except that today ' today and the view of many officials, the phenomenon is currently exceed the regional framework: of cigarette smuggling, theft of camels and hashish which crosses the border to the Algeria, in reverse brewing too large sums of money for the ambitions of the nomads who often just little. "Cry last all-terrain vehicles, large motorcycles and cell phones that are often seized on the smugglers, prove that this region is becoming a true rear base for well-organized mafias", recalls a Constable who has left the area. It seems that the traffic limited to theft of camels and driven initially by a few local tribes, a foot at the Morocco and the other in Algeria, is becoming totally uncontrollable. As farmers, repeated their camel theft puts them in an intolerable situation.

A social malaise settled
Sitting on his mat in front of a mud House that smells musty, Haj Ali sighs at the mention of his camels. He confided in the rustle of the leaves of Palm trees, that he had repeatedly to mobilize, despite his age, to beat campaign and regain track of his beasts, stolen three times by bandits in the region. "The irony is that not only I managed to regain my camels which were forwarded towards Ouarzazate to be sold but I also transmitted to the police the names of the authors of the flight. Are you that they passed the Court of Zagora and were released with two months suspended prison sentence each! "." Another owner, terrorized at the idea of talking to a reporter, prefers to tell the locals daily, peasants dispossessed of their scarce resources and forced to live in the boondocks rather than emigrate to Smara as all the others. Today, to defend their camels and sometimes even their lives, farmers feel caught between two fires, the ferocity, huge means of smugglers and the silent complicity of authorities when not outright threats of the kingpin of the corner. "Me hamid is becoming a true wild West", comments a teacher who did not return home to see a beautiful region and people also peaceful in prey to this ambient uncertainty.

For his part, Dr. Sbaï who is languishing behind the bars of the prison of Ouarzazate thought fulfilled its duty of honest citizen stressing to the authorities so that they operate on behalf of justice, before the situation became uncontrollable. He has even suppliées them, told them how much their silence is fishy. But it's the secrets that it is not good to be surprised. "Instead of doing the corruption trial, and therefore corrupt, it preferred to the trial of those who denounced" indignant his brother Ali, a physicist of international renown working in Geneva on behalf of the United Nations.

In the meantime, the inhabitants of me hamid who valiantly and spontaneously repelled attacks by mercenaries from the Polisario in 1980 engaged in bare-knuckle their final battle against the mafia of camels. It is rumored that uniforms of any hair that crisscross the region fill the pockets of a blatantly taking a dime at the crossing. Still should be able to prove it!

Traffic. Borders-ghosts

It is 30 km from me hamid, who was in the 16th century the point of rallying with Timbuktu, stand the invisible invisible between the Algeria and the Morocco border limits because the meagre strength of soldiers who squat border posts spaced at tens of kilometres can control anything. The border is a real sieve and we often meet nomads and camel-drivers that come and go on both sides with ease. When the political climate between the Morocco and the Algeria is not the beautiful fixed, cameleers refrain from crossing the sand dunes but their camels, they are deprived hardly. "When the drought is too strong, we loose the camels which, guided by the instinct of survival, do not hesitate to pass on the other side, looking for the slightest vegetation" comments a camel in the region which adds that once satiated, the beasts are back in the reverse path, which does not prevent the Rguibat across the border to do the same with their animals.

Source: Telquel

Surprise and confusion!

Following a national and international mobilization intense, including the intervention of Amnesty International, Dr. Ladharam Sam was released on 10 March 2006, the prison of Ouarzazate. However, the conditions for this release have not been clear, because Dr. Ladharam Sam wanted a true trial of the corruption of justice in Zagora, the source of the problem, and it naturally refused to sign the request for clemency, arguing the fact that if one shushes his case it does not solve the very current issue of corruption of the Prosecutor in Zagora personifying the climax of this scourge in the eyes of the entire population in this region and can be throughout the country.

This release was a sham respite: he will be arrested again June 11 in Casablanca to purge a balance of penalty, 4 year old and a half. The injustice is intractable to silence a voice too annoying!

History of the struggle of Dr. Labbas SBAI good governance to the Morocco

Geneva on August 3, 2010

Release of the support Committee for the release of Dr. Ladharam SBAI

Hi all

Dr. Labbas SBAI comes to be released from the prison hospital of Ouarzazate Pavilion, after one month and 22 days in detention and a hunger strike for the past June 17!

What a relief. But what questions also!

Before analyzing hot we just live, our thoughts go out to him for what he has suffered for his courage and dignity and finally, more importantly, for what he has denounced that, alas, remains topical with a Prosecutor in Zagora personifying, excessive, that Morocco, we love all, must avoid. Is better in combat!

Because it all started from there, four years ago. Worse, denounced in 2006 worsened in the month son and the role of the Prosecutor became central to what is known as: a collision with something disturbing flights of camels and trafficking of all kinds, including drugs. The State must take action. There interviewing victims in this region and adequate and transparent investigations to identify the complaisance, see complicities. Dr. Labbas SBAI and others make that call to the respect and application of the basic principles to combat these plagues ravaging the Morocco today.

 Thank you for your support and your listening.

Support Committee for the release of Dr. Ladharam SBAI


* The Attorney Natasha was transferred to Nancy for a year. It continues to crack down and use! What a shame for justice in our country

See also:

"Asked the spokesperson for victims to request an apology… and the victims to remain silent." … Except when the case takes on international proportions…

The moral of this story: the sorcerer's apprentice, who have long believed in the triumph of the lie, are caught by the facts!

In this story, the Attorney Al Azhari, the Court of first instance in Zagora, symbolizes all derivatives of justice to the Morocco:

Corruption, trafficking of influences, protection of traffickers, abuse of power,… etc. Feeling untouchable thanks to a privileged relationship with a senior official in Rabat, he did suffer arbitrary largest Zagora region at the level of justice since independence. Now he is posted to Roumani, near Rabat. We wish that with the new judicial authorities, it will closely monitor it…

August 3, 2010

Epilogue: at 10.00, release of Dr. Ladharam Sam. Issuance and questions!

Article in the newspaper Le Temps, July 19, 2010

31.07 – 3.08: human shields (the sisters) around Dr Ladharam Sam to prevent his transfer to the prison or to Marrakech!

July 19, 2010

The journalist Valérie De Graffenried wrote an article in the newspaper Le Temps:

"Imprisoned in Ouarzazate, a Switzerland screams injustice. See:

The Federal Department of foreign (DFA) ensures follow the case closely. The Switzerland Ambassador in Rabat confirmed that a visit to the prisoner of an official of the Embassy will take place Friday, July 23, 2010.

July 17, 2010

An official of Amnesty International (AI) in London, Samira boy, contact Dr. Ladharam Sam by telephone. His brother had forwarded the file to have on June 15, 2010. Actions of have are expected these days, including pressure on the Moroccan justice in many treat the prisoner and contribute to a quick release… HAVE is in contact with the family of the victim and her support Committee.


July 16, 2010

Dr. Labbas Sbaï sent a letter to the Switzerland Ambassador to Rabat, the Hospital where he is admitted, under supervision, since July 8. In this letter, he recalls the facts and highlights the arbitrary conditions of his arrest and inconsistent reasons given by justice officials and advance the real reasons that led to gag it! The collusion of the big traffickers and local officials. All to silence a voice that bothers!


July 15, 2010

Things are starting to move:

The Swiss newspaper thetime and Amnesty International took the case. They get in touch with loved ones and conduct their investigations. It seems that this is actually a case of opinion which is part of the human rights. The fact that he is a citizen Switzerland adds extra pressure!


July 14, 2010

Amnesty International contacted the brother of the victim, Ali Sbaï, on the basis of the record sent June 15, 2010. According to their account, this case falls within their priorities in the region.


Still the disturbing silence of the Switzerland Embassy awaiting a prison form to act, the management of the prison has been slow to provide. What vicious, while croupisse a prisoner of conscience in jail!


July 8, 2010

After medical examination, it was decided to keep it at the Hospital since July 8. However, he continued his strike of hunger, under medical supervision, fortunately.

July 7, 2010

Seen the dramatic evolution of the State of health of Dr. L. Sbai. It is only yesterday on 6 July it received at the hospital after more than 25 days in prison in deplorable conditions: the prisoner of conscience and human rights activist must share his cell with a score of common law prisoners in a heat of 30 to 40 degrees! This is unacceptable!

June 15 – July 20, 2010:

Authorities are dispatched police and army reinforcements to me hamid to deter people from manifest. What impressed not nomadic, admirable women of courage and dignity outside the tent camped before the me Caidat hamid (see photos and video of the event on 26 June). On the poster carried by women: the inhabitants of me hamid ask for the release of Dr. Labbas Sbai and not to arbitrary justice! On the video, we see an intifada of young people investing the entrance to Caidat (Prefecture) of me hamid.

Since June 15, in a show of solidarity without prior and in a continuous manner, the population of me hamid organised a sit-in led by youth from me hamid (much of graduates unemployed of a forgotten region!). Calls for the release of Dr. L. Sbai and good governance, administrative and judicial are claimed. This gathering has enabled the collection of the grievances of the population of this area victim of the theft of camels, trafficking of all kinds, faults of justice… All point finger corruption personified by the Prosecutor, Abdelaziz Natasha, who is at the origin of the imprisonment of one of their own: Dr. Ladharam Sam for having denounced aloud what everyone thinks any bottom.

This trend began with flights of camels, fueling drug trafficking and marginalizing the Hamada du Draa nomads!

Currently, he is in Ouarzazate prison hunger strike and his family faces enormous pressure to make he signed a request for clemency to the High Council of Justice which can lead or not to lead. Aware that this maneuver is intended to cover a Prosecutor (he enjoys it seems powerful support in Rabat) and a real willingness to release.

June 15, 2010

A call transmitted to Amnesty International, the Human Rights Council, in Geneva, the national and international press and the institutions and NGOs working for good governance in the Morocco.

This call is entitled:

"Should it be the trial of corruption or the trial and those who denounce the? ''

Support Committee for Dr. Ladharam Sam good governance of justice in the Morocco.

June 13, 2010: A tenacious injustice!

Four years later, the Crown Procurator in Zagora launches an arrest warrant against Dr. Ladharam Sam who is arrested at the hotel Azur in Casablanca and transferred to the prison in Ouarzazate, as a simple criminal. Explanation of the Ouarzazate to Dr. Sbai Prosecutor: you still had not signed the request for clemency that you was presented March 10, 2006 (4 years instead!). Sign here and we closed the case, otherwise you do the balance in jail immediately.

Faithful to its principles, Dr. Ladharam Sbai said calmly to the Prosecutor: "if I've not signed him four years ago, I won't do it now, the reasons for my denunciation of corruption are still current. It is the Prosecutor in Zagora to request an apology to an innocent and answer for his actions to his superiors. So, I stand by my refusal. Locked up immediately.

He is right Dr Ladharam Sbai refuse to ask for an apology. In this fight now, it has the support of the population, law, and Justice for good administrative governance and judicial in the Kingdom attacking head-on the scourge of corruption, particularly those of judges. This fight is timely and we are all behind Dr. Ladharam Sam and those, anonymous, and many suffering derivatives of those who confuse: serve and serve to the Morocco of today.


Le Temps newspaper: July 19, 2010


See the link:

Time July 19, 2010 by Valérie De GRAFFENRIED

Imprisoned in the Morocco, a Switzerland screams injustice

Valérie de Graffenried

The family of Ladharam Sbai, Moroccan citizen and Switzerland, denounced arbitrary detention. The surgeon accused of the notables of his region to protect traffickers. The FDFA is following the case. But being binational Corsica folder

The life of Dr. Labbas Sbaï does not really resemble a long quiet river. This binational Moroccan and Swiss worked for several years as surgeon in French-speaking Switzerland, then departed in 1996 developing a hotel structure to me hamid Lghizlane, an oasis of the Sahara Moroccan. There are today in jail in Ouarzazate to pointing the finger a complicity between authorities of the region and traffickers. His family denounced arbitrary detention. And the federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA) provides follow the case closely.

Ladharam Sam is in prison since June 13. But its difficulties date back to 2006. In February of this year, he is sentenced to six months in prison for contempt of magistrate and disorder in a public place. At the trial of one of its employees accused by a nomad of the death of a donkey, the man denounced notables in the region, including the Attorney of the province of Zagora, for closing its eyes to the activities of the underworld of the corner engaged in camel, cigarettes, and drugs at the border between traffic. A band of nomads installed around his bivouac harassing several years tourists and its ecological camp staff. Angry by the inaction of the authorities, Ladharam Sbai, described by his family as someone with a temperament of fire, drew the attention of the president of the tribunal on "mafia behavior" of these "corrupt officials".

"Worthy of the years of lead".

His sentence provoked a strong mobilization in the region. In Switzerland also, petitions were circulated. His brother, Ali Sbaï, a physicist working in Geneva for the International Union of telecommunications (ITU), is outraged. "My brother has been treated as a criminal; He was handcuffed and escorted by several police in Ouarzazate cars. Believed to be income scenarios worthy of the years of lead", he denounced. After appeal, the penalty of Ladharam Sam has been reduced by half. Finally, the strong mobilization would have allowed the release of the surgeon March 10, 2006, in unclear circumstances.

Today, Ladharam Sbai, married to a Swiss woman and father of two children, is back in prison. "To purge the balance of punishment", said his brother, who does not décolère. He was arrested June 11 in a hotel in Casablanca. The Attorney of Zagora justified the arrest by the fact that he has not signed a request for grace to the King that it was submitted on 10 March 2006. Gold Ladharam Sam considers that it is for the Prosecutor to apologize and not to him to sign a document which, in fact, would be to admit his wrong. Back to the prison so.

"It should theoretically remain in prison until August 2. But, judging her arbitrary arrest, we fear that his detention is prolonged,"said Ali Sbaï. It adds: "even if my brother, which is nothing other than a prisoner of conscience, is released, it is important for us that the complaints of me hamid are taken seriously. '' Villagers gathered the evidence of the Attorney. I will soon pass a letter with these facts to the King." Two friends Swiss surgeon were sent, on 25 June, an 'urgent appeal' to Micheline Calmy-Rey. They say very concerned about the State of health of Ladharam Sam, which they describe as someone whose the "critical and outspoken, added to the fact that it is one of the last descendants of a nomadic tribe, and therefore considered a form of authority by the people of the desert, make it threatening to some people installed in power.

Pierre-Michel Quendoz, the alternate head of the Section of the consular protection of the FDFA, replied July 2. "It is with great commitment and determination that the stakeholders follow this matter closely", he wrote to them. He added, however, that representations abroad may carry out activities of lawyers, or pronounce on the innocence or guilt of a person. And not to interfere in routine legal Affairs of their host country. "Consular protection is even more difficult to be granted when the persons concerned are dual nationals and that the nationality of the country of detention is considered paramount, as is the case in this case," he added.

Despite this obstacle, the Embassy of Switzerland in Rabat is in regular telephone contact with the competent authorities on the spot, Ladharam Sam and his relatives. Friday, in an email sent to a friend of Ladharam Sam, the Vice-Consul of the Swiss mission ensures that "its State concern actually. And advised that a representative of the Embassy will move "soon" in Ouarzazate for him to visit. A village where mobilization is still significant: according to Assabah newspaper, 250 police officers are deployed the week last to contain the demonstrators.

Ladharam Sbai, him, just write to the Ambassador of Switzerland. It does not go well. Ali Sbaï: "he is in hospital and is still leading a hunger strike. He know that if he was again transferred to jail, where he shares a cell with a score of common law prisoners, he would stop drinking."



For having denounced the trafficking of cocaine and arms in southeastern Morocco, Ladharam Dr. Sam was imprisoned in 2006 and 2010. Passing through Switzerland, the surgeon, reconverted in eco-tourism, recalls that the wind of revolt that shakes the Muslim world began in October last in Western Sahara. Clashes between Moroccan forces and Saharawi activists have left several dead.

A few months ago, Ummah had met to me hamid, at the border between the Morocco and Algeria, the surgeon of 54 years, citizen Moroccan and Swiss. He came out of prison. His crime? That of having denounced tirelessly for a decade trafficking at the border. Smuggling of camels to cigarettes, hashish, it is substituted that of cocaine, from South America into Europe by poorly maintained tracks. These mafias are benefiting from the complicity of politicians, officials, military ranks, denounces Ladharam Sam.

For these charges, the doctor was imprisoned twice for "contempt of court" and "disorder in a public place. Passing through Switzerland (his wife is Swiss German), the surgeon, who worked in Lausanne, Fribourg, Bern, gave us an interview. From a Sahrawi family, Ladharam Sam does not militate the POLISARIO. His father, recalls, was a close associate of King Mohammed v. However, he denounces the policy currently pursued by the Morocco in Western Sahara. The Kingdom, he warns, is not immune to the revolt currently blowing on the Muslim world.

The doctor Labbas Sbaï in 2010 to his release from prison

You do not belong to the Polisario. However, you are very critical of the attitude of Morocco in Western Sahara.

Before the Tunisia and Egypt, the first peaceful protests in the Muslim world took place in the desert, near El-Ayoun, the capital of Western Sahara. More than 15,000 Sahrawis were installed from October 12 in a tent camp. They were violently evacuated by Moroccan forces. The clashes have been several deaths and hundreds of injuries on November 8. By sending tanks, planes, against civilians, the Morocco has lost any chance to find a peaceful outcome to the Sahara. These are the most serious disorders since 1975.

Yet you are not for the independence of Western Sahara?

I'm Moroccan, but I have family in Western Sahara, as I have family to the Polisario. I think that Mohamed VI could save the situation by immediately applying an autonomy plan. It has not done so.

Do you fear you are being accused of being close to the Polisario?

In Morocco, as soon as you criticize the system, you immediately suspected to be either leftist, Islamist, or for the independence of Western Sahara. It's a way for the power of veiling the face and did not seek to tackle the real problems.
You accuse the authorities of the province of Zagora to close our eyes on cocaine trafficking.

I returned for a decade in this region to highlight the oasis of Oum Laalag, which belongs to my family, and to develop eco-tourism in the desert. I soon discovered in this region, close to the Algerian border, mafias came elsewhere. They engage in cocaine trafficking. The drug from South America, is landed in Agadir, it crosses South of Morocco of the Algeria, and since the Libya, back in Italy. It is a road very few monitored. These mafias have bought complicity at the highest level in the region of Zagora.

Is the King aware?

I talked to some of his advisers, I gave them names. But nothing is happening. On the other hand, I was threatened many times, including by members of my own family working for traffickers. My wife and my two children are in Switzerland, they want more come to me hamid and Umm Laalag. I'm not afraid to repeat that members, prosecutors, military work for the drug barons. This is why I was thrown in jail twice. Fortunately, people have come to demonstrate to support me during my hunger strike.

Could the situation fester?

There are alliances between these drug mafias and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. There's not that cocaine transiting this area but also weapons. Public opinion ignores it, but we sometimes discover weapons caches in the Moroccan desert. Soldiers were killed in clashes. But all this remains hidden. The press is muzzled. I fear that terrorists come remove tourists in this region. It would be a disaster. Hotels Brawl, tens of thousands of workers would be left without work. And since the Morocco, undermined by corruption, is very fragile, anything can happen…

Interview by Ian Hamel


Index: MDE 29/017/2010

Date: July 29, 2010

Morocco: Clarify the legal status of Dr. Sam Laabas'

Amnesty International has urged the Moroccan government to clarify the legal status of Dr. Sam Laabas', who has been on hunger strike since two days after his arrest on 11 June 2010, apparently under an arrest warrant issued against him in 2006. He is currently being held at a hospital in Ouarzazet, where his health is reported to be deteriorating as a result of his hunger strike.

The arrest of Dr. Sam ' in Casablanca on June 11, 2010 is believed to be connected to his prosecution and imprisonment in 2006 on charges of insult and libel of the judiciary and public officials arising from remarks he made when he appeared as a witness in a case in which one of his employees was being prosecuted. As a result of his remarks, he is reported to have been charged with insulting officials and libel by the General Crown Prosecutor of Zagora. He is reported to have been arrested on 2 February 2006 and, before the end of that day, tried, convicted and sentenced to a six month prison term while being denied time to consult a lawyer or prepare his defence. The Zagora appeal court subsequently confirmed his conviction, despite the serious procedural irregularities that had occurred, but cut his sentence by half. He went on hunger strike in protest and his imprisonment prompted wide criticism in Morocco and internationally. He was released a few weeks later, on 10 March 2006, when he says he was told by an official that he had benefited from a Royal Pardon issued by Morocco's head of state, King Mohammed VI. However, he received no. written notification confirming this.

It is unclear why Dr. Sam ' was rearrested on June 11, 2010 and the Moroccan authorities have yet to clarify this. It appears that they are seeking to enforce the prison sentence imposed upon him in 2006 despite the Royal Pardon which, he was told, was the reason for his release in March 2006.

According to as yet unconfirmed reports, Dr. Sbai' has complained to the authorities on several occasions about alleged criminal activities and smuggling in me hamid el-Ghezlan, a region located in the south-east of Morocco in which he has been involved in developing ecotourism and other projects, and has accused the authorities of failing to investigate and take action against armed bandits and smugglers in the area. If so, this may have been a factor in his latest arrest. Women involved in development projects in me hamid el-Ghezlan are reported to have held sit-in protests against Dr. Sam's arrest and imprisonment earlier this month.  

In a letter to Minister of Justice Mohamed Naciri, Amnesty International called for clarification of the reasons and legal basis for the re-arrest of Dr. Laabas Sam ' and for confirmation that he was the subject of a Royal Pardon when previously imprisoned in 2006.

If his imprisonment is not directly related to the sentence imposed on him in 2006, Dr. Sbai' should be released immediately unless he is to be brought to trial promptly and fairly – including with due time and legal assistance to prepare his defence – on recognizable criminal charges.

Amnesty International – MENA program
1 Easton Street, London WC1X0DW United Kingdom

Al Itihad, the 19.07.2010




Release June 10, 2010


Me m'hamid El Ghizlane: after smuggling, theft of camels

Me m'hamid El Ghizlane: after smuggling, theft of camels

 The border area of me m'hamid El Ghizlane is a region conducive to illegal activities. After trafficking of fuel, cigarettes, cannabis resin which could threaten the stability of the region, here came the time of flight organized camel. Both accused were referred to the tribunal of Zagora, in the context of a complaint filed by a young tourist promoter in the region that has lost four of its camel Monday.
The alleged thief is well known in the region for his repetitive actions. A history of laptops, binoculars luxury and other small materials unveiled the nature of the last flight which will certainly not be the only mischief, given the flexibility and the laxity with which authorities deal with these issues. Note also the lack of evidence, and sometimes the night passage across the border, things that reassure thieves.
Life of the desert revolves in the trust and solidarity. In the ancient nomadic tribes, the flight was considered a serious crime against the survival of the group. Suddenly, the animals are often left free to come and go within a perimeter bounded under the supervision of the shepherds; Sometimes, they go further… But there is always someone to find them. This is how it works. But the thieves who are rampant in the region, also know the desert. What will be these stolen camels? As the case may be, their destiny is variable: marks of the owner may be camouflaged, and beasts conducted in another area to be resold. If they are not valuable, or the thief does not want to take risks, the beasts will land on the stall of a butcher.
In fact, the victim, Lamptey, who had just a few days previously received the Queen Sofia of Spain which is mounted on a stolen camels, is not an isolated case. Many families are deprived of their animals, herds sometimes, and thus condemned to a precarious settlement and without resources.
The culprits… rarely punished. A few months in prison, at most. "It is not simply four camels that are missing from the call, but four camels too, the straw that broke the camel, if one wants to say", commented Lahcen who is afraid that "his trial followed in other cases of the same kind".
In the region of Mhamid El Ghizlane, one speaks of a true mafia and an international network. They are old shepherds, lookouts, informants, carriers, dealers, butchers, as many people involved. Camels are covered, but they are not the only ones: cows, sheep, goats are also appreciated by thieves.

Letter to the delegate Minister of the Interior, remained unanswered. To get his attention on the deficiencies of some officials, the caïd Ali Bouksim and Natasha, apparently intouvchables Attorney:

March 7, 2013

Your Excellency, Minister delegate to the Interior,

Recent events have confirmed the content of my previous posts, concerning traffic in the region of me hamid and their consequences on the security of the State and citizens in this region.

One of the main leaders of this scourge, Mr. Ait El Kaid Lahcen, said Jerome OUSSEHLOU, was arrested in Goulimine, a few weeks ago. He is the author of the murder of Mr Lahcen BEIHI, December 30, 2012 to Taba, in the province of Errachidia, to silence a troublesome witness. The victim worked indoors as Mensah, it seems. According to several sources, it was the 4th victim of this great dealer. It all started with the flight of camels, in 2003-2004. Has El Kaid Lamptey and his band have decimated the herd of camels of the poor nomads in the region, to feed their drug trafficking.

To understand this incredible story, one must go back to June 2004. The facts:

  1. A vigilance committee led by brother L. Sam was created in early 2004, to track down the thieves of camels and denounce them to the authorities.
  2. June 10, 2004, vigilant members identified Ait El Kaid Lahcen with two accomplices and their motorbikes, near Iriqui, 100 km west of me hamid, trying to steal a herd of camels. Stalking in motorcycles continued until me hamid, early in the morning around 4:00. Has El Kaid Lamptey was able to take refuge with relatives and to throw a gun and bullets before entering to me hamid.
  3. My brother immediately alerted the Adjutant of gendarmerie, Subashini at 6:00 in the morning, 11 June 2004. It has confirmed that it has found the bullets (they were spread out on his desk!), but not the rifle, seems (?).
  4. L. Sam lobbied on the warrant officer Ahansal so he denounces this dealer and possession of weapons, to Attorney Natasha in Zagora. Noting that this is a grave precedent for the security of the region and the quietude of the inhabitants.
  5. Has El Kaid Lahcen, actually, was arrested and handed over by Wo Subashini to Attorney Natasha in Zagora.
  6. Surprise, the Prosecutor held that the conduct of motorcycle without paper and released him after a few weeks.
  7. L. Sam alerted the Governor Biognache for this breach of justice, in vain. It made him realize that the Attorney Natasha is untouchable (he is a powerful man in Rabat's friend!)
  8. Caïd Ali Bouksim has openly expressed its hostility to Dr. L. Sbai and its support for the Prosecutor and did everything to cover-up Ait El Kaid Lamptey.
  9. Attorney Natasha and the kingpin Bouksim decided to avert the danger of Dr. L. Sbai by all means.
  10. February 2, 2006, this plan began with the arrest and imprisonment of Dr. L. Sbai. Subsequently, known: L. Sbai expressed the Tribunal that everyone knew and feared:

If we attack now this traffic of camel and cigarettes, it is drug trafficking and weapons that will follow, pointing the finger the Attorney of Zagora and the kingpin of me hamid in their laxity, see their complicity.

  1. By stifling the first case Ait El Kaid Lahcen June 11, 2004, these officials have allowed this serious drift towards the current situation.
  2. The flight of camels continued and all persons arrested or condemned have been freed or detained for a few weeks, just enough time for that they thank the Attorney Natasha, for services rendered. Several cases have been suppressed, the list is long, until the Attorney Natasha is transferred to Roumani, near Rabat (wishing that closely monitors and that it confronts him in Ait El Kaid Lahcen!). As the Bouksim kingpin, he promised Tata Pasha!
  3. November 22, 2012, 10 traffickers with 1.7 ton of drugs, in a caravan of camels, were arrested by the Algerian authorities (see message before sent on 10 December). Current case…
  4. As vigilant citizens, and education that we have received from our father, said Mohamed Sheikh Sam, to serve our country and its higher interests, we invite you to examine this case symbolizing both derivatives these past years, with objectivity and firmness. Our new constitution invites all citizens to engage in judicial, administrative and environmental governance in a State of law and not officials are attributing all rights.

Knowing your integrity and your ethics for this good governance, we have confidence that this message will have an objective and effective follow-up.

Cordial greetings

Dr. Ali SBAI


Poetry of the desert

بيلت اُغلق CAPITAL فذاك شر وأبواب خيرٍ كثيرةٍ تُفتحُ

وأستعن برب دوماً فالشريف بشتم اللئيم يُمدحُ الكون

ولا تخشى كثرة الضجيج فالكلب من شدة الخوف ينبحُ

ولا تُضيع في الانتظار وقتك فليلة الخير عصرها تضحُ عند

و تسلح بالصبر فالمرؤُ بعد فقدان الأعصاب يُفضحُ

ولا ترُد على فاقد العقل فالصمت لجواب الأحمق أصلحُ

 محمد على السباعى


If one door closes, it is a harm avoided, other doors of the property will open

Always on the creator of the universe, the insult of the noble by the shabby is a eulogy

Is not afraid of the intensity of the hubbub, the dog barks under the stress of fear

Do not lose your time waiting, the beautiful evening looks already afternoon

Weapon you patience, human beings, after the loss of nerves, to view

Does not meet the spirit, minus the silence is the correct response to the madness

Mohamed Salyers

Mohamed Sheikh SBAI, last Lion of the Desert

«Mohamed Ali, I leave you the keys and convey my greetings to Lehjeila «, followed very emotional hugs…» On her sublime face, freshly shaved, after the operation that it had suffered with success at the Agdal in Rabat clinic, tears in the eyes, I've never felt as beautiful smell.

 We are Saturday, January 29, 2005, I had to travel the most painful of my life, the longest, not in terms of kilometers but of emotions. This journey saw us leaving the sinister Ouarzazate hospital, Friday, January 28 around 3 p.m., after several discussions with doctors, brothers, sisters, revolving around a single question: was it necessary to bring my father, the lion of the desert, almost unconscious, due to complications cardiac acute, at a clinic in Marrakech or better equipped Rabat. In a moment of lucidity, my father told me, on a clear tone: Mohamed Ali, was released me from here. I did not hesitate a moment to organize within the hour that followed his transfer, first in Marrakesh, then in Rabat.

 While I crossed the atlas, flashed in my head the main stages of the life of this great man that I was sometimes privileged witness being special relations binding ourselves often beyond father-son to rank in a friendship out of standard. One day of summer 1995 in Switzerland, while was is relaxing on a terrace overlooking the beautiful Lake, in a burst of happiness, joy and humor, it me called, no doubt to put me at ease: Mohamed Ali, a father often chooses a friend among his sons. Message received five out of five. It rarely even laughed and joked. He was a consummate art to add a touch of humor to more serious discussions, often respond by metaphor, proverb, or image that made superfluous any explanation… He had a concern delicate to put his audience at ease, not taking them top, not playing the preacher and caring, constantly, the accuracy and relevance of the facts that he declined an inimitable tone!

I understood why Lehjeila, my mother, woman settled, polyglot, having mastered everything that can be acquired as knowledge in the desert, has set his sights on you while she was approached by wealthy nomads, more literate, as families Sid El Madani and Sidi El Konti, who felt that this light must remain in the circle of the ulema (people of knowledge). Had not reckoned with the strong character and vision of this young Bedouin landing to me hamid, on his camel Maria, at the end of the 1940s, after a journey of several weeks that it has carried out Bir Umm Grein in Mauritania until me hamid. His trusted friends, including his sister Guabel, she said she has not seen someone like Mohamed Cheikh, everything she crossed the desert. What tribute!

At the end of the operation carried out, Saturday, January 29, 2005, by Professor Chaâra of the Agdal clinic, it told me its success and asked me to follow the request of my father to see me. Surprised to see it lying on his bed, in another State, smiling and bright, it me greeted with this sentence which shocked me: I knew that whoever has such a treasure, is not lost. Happiness and joy, I him tight against me and tell him, embarrassed: it is you treasure. We spent nearly three timeless hours I can never describe, and for good reason. In his voice, I felt the serenity of one who was prepared to leave an ephemeral world to eternity… By sliding her hand in mine, at the end of this last trip together, he told me: I will leave the keys and kiss Lehjeila (her daughter). I immediately éclipsai me to catch my flight to Geneva with a sense of accomplishment, after the success of the operation, but with a heavy responsibility for its enigmatic message. Which keys got it passed? And how to use it? On the plane, I blacked out a slip of a few lines, to free myself from the embrace of two issues that interrupted, constantly scrolling events in my memory.

 Two weeks later, on February 13, 2005, this legend died peacefully in the heart of the Atlas, Taddert 90 KMS South of Marrakech, gently reciting soorat al-'Azzalzala, the earthquake': when the Earth, delivers his testimony on the action of men, in the last judgment! A land where he returned, next to his family: his father Sidi Ladharam, her mother Lalla Steira and his first wife Lehjeila, my mother, buried near the mausoleum of Sidi Khalil Es-Sabga, his grandfather, the wandering saint. The wandering? Because Sidi Khalil, one of the most learned minds of the desert, realized very early that wandering in the middle of animals, several years during, he had more chance to unravel the mysteries of life, away from the greed of men… A t – it succeeded? He left with his secret with his grandson, Mohamed Cheikh, in captured certainly something… The legends continue to fuel debate on the mysteries of the communion between man and the animal, like the iconic history of Saint Francis of Assisi lived on another continent, several centuries earlier!  

This Sunday, February 13, 2005, I lost a father or a friend. Certainly the two.


Mohamed Sheikh Sam joined his creator on February 13, 2005

Newspaper Al Attihad AlIchtiraki February 14, 2005

 Came the moment, finally, to blacken a few pages in his memory in which jostling images, events and reflections, with filigree this still current issue: how to tell the bulk, without falling into the anecdotal? Also, allowing new generations to have looking lucid and objective on the history of Morocco, from 1953 to 2005, through the course of this lion of the desert which, early on, has debunked man especially when it has the power or claims to have other men!

Mohamed Sheikh who ignored all the challenges to say, by pride, that a man is on the Earth or under the Earth. You the lion of the desert, the man who has fought against the arrogance of power of Hassan II and who challenged, whenever he had to be on the side of justice, people power and fears, and all time good believer, the unique power, that of God, the Almighty. Yes, you told me, with your piercing glance: my son, the one who fears God feared person and one who does not fear God feared everyone. What sense of verticality, Mohamed Sheikh, son of Sid El Abbas, Ojha Sidi Khalil Es-Saih, the wandering Saint, and Lalla Steira, Holy, that have transmitted you certainly SAP the faith and the nobility. Your challenges legendary any drift of people power in your region and even nationally, when it became clear in the 1960s, after the disprition of your friend Mehdi Ben Barka, that your camp is now of those who were going to suffer a black Decade (1965-1975) of repression and marginality. Paradoxically, these are the years which are gushing out from my memory the most beautiful and the strongest memories with you.

 To understand what follows, it is important to describe me m'hamid El Ghizlane, stronghold of Mohamed Cheikh, through three contexts: geographic, ethnic and historical by elsewhere related.

 Me hamid El Ghizlane is located at the elbow of the Draa River, the long river of the same name, 250 kms Southeast of Ouarzazate, to the door of the desert and giving access to the large caravan tracks leading from southern Morocco to Timbuktu, in the South, and to Mauritania, to the Southwest. This strategic position gave him a historic role in the conquest of Saharan and sub-Saharan spaces by the different Moroccan empires, particularly at the time of the Saadian where me hamid has had its golden age representative the beachhead of the armies of Ahmed Al Mansour to the South. At that time, the currency of the empire Saadien was struck at Kasbet Laalouj, near me hamid and a large Customs was installed filtering caravan traffic from the Morocco to Timbuktu or coming from it. This is for geography. 

About the history of me hamid El Ghizlane, without going back very far, let's look at that of the French presence, the independence, the years of lead and the current Morocco, at the crossroads, in the context of the Arab spring is trying to redraw the political map of a world coming out of close to half a century of lethargy, without knowing where he is going.

 Me hamid has had the privilege of being the last Moroccan point to fall, in 1932, under the present french protectorate in Morocco since 1912. This slowness is explained that du Maréchal Lyautey focused first on the useful Morocco around Rabat – Fez – Casablanca – Marrakech. 

 January 1932, the epilogue of the civil war that has bloodied me hamid 1930-1932 States finally with the arrival of the french who, after having pacified the Jbel Saghro and conquered without a problem the Draa Valley, were preparing to invest the largest Palm Grove of southern Morocco and strategically most important because it opens up their domination at the great Hamada du Draa to junction with the Iguidi region and Zegdou already conquered in Algeria nearby. This last episode was facilitated by the tribal war between the proud tribe of the Ait Kankuri, not least proud tribe of Arib or at least the part that is grouped around the Sidi Khalil, the Mystic marabout family nicknamed Saint Errant 'Sidi Khalil Essaieh'. The Arib tribe, from the Maaquil Arabs who conquered space desert of the Draa River at the beginning of the invasion (or conquest, according to) Arabic in the 8-9th centuries. Historians explain this presence of the Hamada du Draa region similar to their area of origin in Arabian peninsula and the Yemen: desert with oases where the opportunity to lead a similar life…

 The Ait Kankuri tribe is known for its warlike and domineering character. What earned him fear and believes in the southern part of the Morocco. Hunted by the French of the Saghrou and the Tafilalet region, Aït Faten are folded naturally on me hamid and its region, the only space not then conquered by the French and that his could present a nice contrast on these roumis miscreants and a den of harassment. However the main obstacle to overcome is to exclude the very powerful head of me hamid, Sidi Mohamed Ould Sidi Khalil, who reigns over all the desert space ranging from me hamid Zegdou and Tawdenni, the famous mine of salt along the caravan leading of M-hamid to Timbuktu. Sidi Mohamed is imposed on the French as principal interlocutor in this region and has signed an agreement of non-aggression, in 1926, to manage the region with them from me hamid and especially to monitor the trade caravan, very active, at the beginning of the century. Before the showdown with Sidi Mohamed, the powerful head of the Aït Kankuri, Moha Ould Akhrabich, attempted to bribe the Arib tribe factions that are sensitive to a fight against the French representing a threat to islam. This argument could touch the Legouassem faction, which is very sensitive to anything related to religion. They have never forgiven its arrangements with the French and its monopoly of the caravan trade to Sidi Mohamed. In 1927 all explosive ingredients were gathered into the bloody confrontation. Encouraged by the hostile attitude of a part of the inhabitants of the region towards Sidi Mohamed. Including Ouled Sahel to Tagounit, the me Drawa hamid, the blessed me hammed to Talha and part of the nomads of Arib and Nouaji blaming Sidi Mohammed his inhospitable attitude of Ait Kankuri, their powerful protectors and valiant fighters against the french. The absence of the latter in the region has opened the way, naturally, to the last civil war in this region.